Mallard 75

    On 3 July 1938, the A4 class locomotive Mallard raced down Stoke Bank at 126mph to set a new steam locomotive world speed record. That record still stands.

    During 2013 and 2014 we marked the 75th anniversary of Mallard's achievement with the Mallard 75 series of commemorative events, including spectacular opportunities to see the world's fastest locomotive united with its five surviving sister locomotives.

    A retrospective of the Great Gathering story in pictures:

    Sir Nigel Gresley (1876-1941) was the Chief Mechanical Engineer of the London and North Eastern Railway. He is photographed here at the Doncaster Works with the A4 Pacific No 4498 he designed and which was named after him. Gresley's streamlined A4 series cut the King's Cross to Newcastle journey time to just four hours in the 1930's.

    Mallard reached 126 m.p.h racing down Stoke Bank on 3 July 1938. Here, the members of the crew reflect on their achievement following Mallard's record breaking run in 1938. Mallard was the 28th of the 35 A4 class of express locomotives designed by Gresley and had particular design features to ensure speedy passage on the East Coast Line on which it usually operated. This included an eight-wheeled corridor tender which uniquely allowed the crew access to the train behind, so the team could work shifts without stopping the locomotive.

    Dominion of Canada being transported in September 2012.

    Mallard getting a freshen-up and re-paint in the National Railway Museum's workshop prior to the Great Gathering.

    Dwight D Eisenhower arrive at Liverpool Docks (credit: Ant Clausen)

    Dominion of Canada with the cargo ship in the background (credit: Ant Clausen).

    Dominion of Canada getting a complete cosmetic restoration.

    Dominion of Canada - restoration finishing touches require a steady hand

    The team at Locomotion Shildon responsible for the restoration work of Dominion of Canada.

    Both Dominion of Canada and Dwight D Eisenhower spent considerable time in our workshops and the teams at York and Shildon shared the workload prior to the Great Gatherings. Here Heritage Painters put the finishing touches to Dwight.

    The classic line-up shot of the 6 A4 locomotives in Great Hall, York.

    The Great Goodbye at Shildon between 15-23 February 2014. Visitors sent through many wonderful photographs of the Great Goodbye, this one was kindly submitted by Fionnbarr Kennedy.

    The Great Goodbye at Shildon between 15-23 February 2014. Picture courtesy York Loco images.

    The Great Goodbye at Shildon between 15-23 February 2014. Picture courtesy York Loco images.

    The Great Goodbye at Shildon between 15-23 February 2014. Picture courtesy York Loco images.

    The Great Goodbye at Shildon between 15-23 February 2014. Picture courtesy of 60809 images.

    Dominion of Canada and Dwight D Eisenhower leave Shildon on the 3 May, prepared for their trip across the Atlantic. Dwight D Eisenhower will be returned to the National Railroad Museum in Wisconsin and the Dominion of Canada to Exporail, the Canadian National Railway Museum in Montreal. Pictures courtesy of Philip Parker, ACL Cargo.

    Dominion of Canada and Dwight D Eisenhower leave Shildon on the 3 May, prepared for their trip across the Atlantic. Dwight D Eisenhower will be returned to the National Railroad Museum in Wisconsin and the Dominion of Canada to Exporail, the Canadian National Railway Museum in Montreal. Pictures courtesy of Philip Parker, ACL Cargo.

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    A short history of Mallard 4468

    If Rocket's claim to fame was its exceptional performance in the Rainhill Trails - leading to the success of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway - then Mallard marked steam traction's zenith in attaining its world speed record of 126 mph on 3 July 1938.

    Built in March 1938, Mallard is part of the A4 class of locomotive designed by Sir Nigel Gresley when he was Chief Engineer at the LNER. Its innovative streamlined wedge-shaped design bore no resemblance to the preceeding A3 class (of which Flying Scotsman was an example) and was very much a product of 1930's Britain. At this time speed was seen as the ultimate symbol of modernity and the A4 class was the ultimate symbol of art deco styling and cut the journey time from London King's Cross to Newcastle to just four hours.

    Until the morning of the 3 July 1938 the recently built Mallard appeared to be just another member of the LNER's express locomotive. However, Gresley and his team had been working hard to implement changes with a view to not only beat the (then) current British steam record of 114 mph held by the LMS but also the world-record held by Germany's DRG's Class 5 locomotive that had archived 124.5mph in 1936. Gresley chose experienced Joe Duddington as Mallard's driver, along fireman Thomas Bray. The rest of the crew and technical team were only told the true purpose of the run after the train's northbound run from Wood Green, in North London.

    Racing down Stoke Bank, the dynomometer car behind Mallard recorded 120mph, which saw of the LMS's record. However there was a small window before the crew needed to slow down for the Essendine curves so they accelerated even more. For a quarter of a mile the dynomometer car confirmed the train was travelling at 126mph. Now the German record was also gone.

    It was claimed that the train rocked so violently that the dining car crockery smashed and red-hot, bullet-like cinders from the locomotive broke windows at Little Bytham. The force exerted the brakes being applied has caused Mallard's big end bearing to run hot and a slow run to Peterborough was needed to prevent Mallard from being written off.

    Driver Duddington and fireman Bray received a hero's welcome in London. But of course they were soon back on the footplate for another ordinary day at work.

    See also

    Background: Mallard 75